The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.
Cancer Pathophysiology explains the functional changes or biological mechanisms associated with the development of cancer and also describes the conditions typically observed during cancer. This includes study of causes of cancer, diagnosis, pathogenesis (how it develops), biological mechanism, biochemical features, and its prognosis or outcomes. Cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled or abnormal growth of cells due to changes caused by agents called carcinogens and due to mutations in DNA.
- Track 1-1Cancer Cell Biology
- Track 1-2Cancer Pathology
- Track 1-3Carcinogens
Oncogenomics is a subfield of genomics characterizing the genes that cause cancer. Three genes that are primarily responsible for cancer development are
i) Oncogenes- In the case of cancer, these genes replace the protooncogenes responsible for normal cell growth and make the cells grow and divide rapidly forming cancer.
ii) Tumor suppressor genes – In a cancerous patient, the tumor suppressor genes that inhibit cell division gets turned off and thus leading to the uncontrolled division of cells which further results in cancer
iii) DNA repair genes –DNA mutations or damages in DNA are repaired and controlled by these genes. A healthy cell turns into a cancerous one when these DNA repair genes get disabled or altered.
- Track 2-1Cancer associated genes
- Track 2-2Oncogenes
- Track 2-3Tumor Suppressor Genes
- Track 2-4DNA repair genes
With advancements in technology to analyse cancer cells, operomics is an approach integrating genomics, proteomics and transcriptomics to get a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of cancer. It involves the molecular analysis of tissues at all the three levels. By this approach the functional changes at the proteome level can be predicted and thus the disadvantage in one level analysis can be overcome.
- Track 3-1Molecular analysis of tissues
- Track 3-2Genomics
- Track 3-3Proteomics
- Track 3-4Transcriptomics
Biomarkers are naturally occurring molecule, gene or characteristic feature used to indicate the normal or abnormal processes taking place in our body. Its presence also acts as an indicator of a certain disease or illness. They can be patterns of gene expression, levels of particular proteins or the presence of an antigen e.g.(Prostate Specific Antigen-PSA in the case of prostate cancer). They can be found in the blood, stool, urine, tumor tissue, or other tissues or bodily fluids. They can be evaluated either by biopsy or by some imaging techniques. Cancer biomarkers or tumor markers are mostly proteins produced by cancer cells or other cells in response to cancer. The detection and measurement of biomarkers help in finding the specific anticancer treatment method for a particular person.
- Track 4-1Indicator
- Track 4-2Therapeutic intervention
- Track 4-3Gene expression patterns
- Track 4-4Protein level in body fluids
Molecular Diagnostics involves the different tests to examine DNA, RNA and Protein for diagnosis, prognosis and prediction purposes. This new advanced technique can be used for various purposes and few of them are,
- Risk Assessment - Also called molecular profiling or molecular risk assessment determine the possibility / probability of person in developing cancer by testing specific genes and tells whether the person has to undergo intensive screening or some preventive measures.
Differential Diagnosis – They help in diagnosing cancers, types of tissue in which the cancer originated and even the subtypes affecting the same tissue. These analyses help in estimating the aggressiveness of the disease.
- Track 5-1Risk Assessment
- Track 5-2Differential Diagnosis
- Track 5-3Prognosis
- Track 5-4Prediction of Treatment Response
- Track 5-5Pharmacokinetics
- Track 5-6Monitoring Treatment Response
Tumor suppressor genes also known as antioncogenes are genes that control cell division, repair DNA damage and that regulates apoptosis or programmed cell death. When these TSG are turned off due to some mutations in DNA, the cell division increases leading to cancerous growths.
- Track 6-1Antioncogenes
- Track 6-2Control cell division
- Track 6-3Apoptosis
- Track 6-4DNA mutations
Cancer therapeutics deals with the tools and techniques used for the treatment of cancer. Apart from the conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical methods, recent advancements and methods which targets proteins involved in cancer development have been developed to tackle the challenge of tumor heterogeneity, cancer evolution and resistance of cancerous cells to drug treatments. And new innovations aims at providing efficacy with low toxicity.
- Track 7-1Techniques for Cancer treatment
- Track 7-2Chemotherapy
- Track 7-3Radiotherapy
- Track 7-4Surgical methods
- Track 7-5Novel therapies and innovations
Many advanced therapies and novel innovations for the treatment of cancer has been developed these days. The aim of these new treatments is to affect the function of cancer cells without causing any damage to the normal cells and with less side effects. Few of the novel biotherapeutics are,
- ADC-Antibody Drug Conjugate, a biopharmaceutical drug targeting only the cancer cells and leaving the healthy cells unaffected.
- Immunotherapy- Also known as biologic therapy that boosts up the body’s natural defense mechanism to fight against cancer.
Certain inhibitors are also used for the treatment of breast cancers.
- Track 8-1Less side effects
- Track 8-2Biopharmaceutical drug
- Track 8-3Immunotherapy
- Track 8-4Inhibitors
Targeted therapy also known as precision medicine aims at blocking the growth of cancer cells using certain drugs by targeting the specific molecules responsible for tumor growth or carcinogenesis. They also block the action of enzymes or change the proteins responsible for development of cancer and at times they directly deliver toxic substances to cancer cells and kill them. Further the targeted therapy turns off the signals to the cancer cells and thus making them unavailable of information to further divide and grow. The two main types of targeted therapy are,
Small-molecule drugs – Drugs that block the process by which cancer cells multiply and spread.
- Track 9-1Precision medicine
- Track 9-2Turn off signals
- Track 9-3Monoclonal antibodies
- Track 9-4Small molecule drugs
- Track 9-5Specific target
Hormonal therapy is used in the case where a cancer takes the help of hormones for their growth. This treatment works by either blocking the body’s ability to produce hormones or by interfering with the behaviour necessary for the growth of cancer. It is mostly combined with other treatments like chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Hormonal therapy can be used in the case of breast cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian, uterine or thyroid cancers. And the type of hormone therapy depends on age of the patient, type and size of the tumor and presence of hormonal receptors in the tumor.
- Track 10-1Hormonal receptors
- Track 10-2Block hormone production
- Track 10-3Combined with other treatments
Synthetic lethality is a concept that tells that if the function of a single gene is affected the survival of a cell remains unaffected and when functions of both the genes are lost, then it results in cell death. This concept has been used in cancer therapies these days and most commonly used in the case of tumor suppressor genes. Blocking the function of another gene product of TSG, renders the TSG to be active and hence can control the growth of tumor cells.
- Track 11-1Loss of function
- Track 11-2Cell death
- Track 11-3Cancer therapies
Collateral lethality refers to the deletion of genes adjacent to the tumor suppressor genes. These genes though are not involved in cancer progression gets deleted when TSG gets blocked or disabled due to proximity to tumor suppressor genes. These deleted genes act as points of selective vulnerability for developing novel molecular targeted therapeutic strategy. For example in most pancreatic cancer cases, the TSG SMAD4 gets deleted along with ME2 gene which is in close proximity due to collateral lethality. The deletion of ME2 is compensated by the increased expression of its sister gene ME3. Hence therapies involving the inhibition of ME3 results in regulated apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation.
- Track 12-1Deletion of adjacent genes
- Track 12-2Points of selective vulnerability
- Track 12-3Novel strategy
- Track 12-4Regulated apoptosis
- Track 12-5Decreased Cell proliferation
Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels and this helps in the growth of tumor cells by supplying oxygen essential for their growth. Angiogenesis inhibitors or antiangiogenic agents are substances that interfere with different steps of blood formation and thus preventing or slowing down the growth of cancer cells. These drugs or substances are usually given along with other treatments like chemotherapy. The unique role of these angiogenic inhibitors is that they do not directly interfere with the growth of tumor cells but with the growth of blood vessels that help in the development of cancer growth.
- Track 13-1Formation of new blood vessels
- Track 13-2Antiangiogenic agents
- Track 13-3Indirectly affect growth
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released by the cells of body fluids like blood and serum and are considered as important mediators in intercellular communication. They have the ability to transfer proteins, DNA, and mRNA. Also they can alter the tumor microenvironment by regulating immunity, angiogenesis and metastasis. Exosomal nucleic acids are widely used as cancer biomarkers due to their stability against RNase-dependent degradation. They are capable of stable transfer of drugs, therapeutic microRNAs and proteins. Many researches is going on to increase drug resistance using exosomes.
- Track 14-1Extracellular vesicles
- Track 14-2Transfer DNA and mRNA
- Track 14-3Regulate immunity
- Track 14-4Increase drug resistance
In spite of the developing advances in cancer treatment methods, in cases where the therapies are no longer controlling the disease, a special type of care known as hospice is provided to the patients which supports the person medically, psychologically and spiritually. It focuses on caring the patients and keeping them as comfortable as possible by controlling the pain and other symptoms. If the patient’s condition is found to be improving active treatments are resumed.
- Track 15-1Special care
- Track 15-2Controls pain
- Track 15-3Support psychologically